This page contains old news entries until 2010
(July 24) Deployment of Nucleonica Internet Version 18.104.22.168
contains statistics for new modules like UNC, NRA and Cambio. A new table called Statistics1 have been added to the Personal database. A new user called Free has also been added to Users table in order to track non logged users when using UNC and NRA.
Nuclear News cache:
DisplayNucleNews.ascx change to store in the rss_cache folder a new file called nuclearnews.xml. This mean that the problem with the News has been solved. That when there is a breakdown in the web crawler, we dispaly the new from a buffer. At the present time, a file called NucleonicaNews.xml is created. If the connection fails for any reason, the application will read from the created xml file. It is impossible to test in the production server, because we need to switch off the connection to the server… If we do not see any more the label “Sorry, no news”, the problem is solved.
The Inhalation and Ingestion toxicities calculated by KORIGEN should be multiplied by the factor 3e-4 in order to get the toxicities in Sieverts. This was only be done for the top 10 nuclides or elements: now it is done for all the 20 nuclides or elements
An extended version of Korigen is also deployed, which displays the data of all nuclides (up to 800) and elements (up to 80) produced by the KORIGEN code. Unfortunately we don't have a licensed KORIGEN.exe yet.
(July 17) Element 112 named "copernicium"
The group led by Sigurd Hofman at the centre for Heavy Ion Research at Darmstadt (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, GSI) has just proposed the name "copernicium" for element 112 discovered in 1996. The element was produced by fusing zinc atoms with lead atoms in a particle accelerator. To date the element had provisionally been allocated the latin name Ununbium, Uub (for 112). The proposed names still has to be endorsed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The currently known isotopes of Uub listed in the 7th Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart are shown below with their half-lives. The colours denote the main decay modes (yellow: alpha decay, green: spontaneous fission)
More information on the discovery of this new element can be found in the recent commemorative publication to mark the 50th Anniversary of the “Karlsruher Nuklidkarte”. This provides a broad, state of the art overview of scientific research in the nuclear sciences and in particular in the discovery of super heavy elements. The publication provides a broad, state of the art overview of scientific research in the nuclear sciences. Chapter introductions were written by R. Bimbot (France), M. Lewitowicz (France), B. Jonson (Sweden), G. Audi (France), S. Banerjee (India), R. Leonardi (Italy) together with Nobel laureates J. I. Friedman (USA) and G. ‘t Hooft (Netherlands).
In total there are 30 scientific articles covering fundamental and theoretical aspects of nuclear physics and chemistry including the discovery of new elements and decay modes, neutrinos, quarks, antimatter, and dark matter. Technological developments are described in a series of articles ranging from space radiation biophysics and health care to archaeological dating, forensics and cultural heritage.
For further information on the book, see Flyer
To celebrate the 50th anniversary in 2008, a special one-day event was organised by ITU on 9th Dec. 2008 in the Gartensaal of the Karlsruhe Schloss (castle). Presentations were made by a number of renowned scientific experts: A. Zichichi (CERN), A. Popeko (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna), F. Bosch (GSI Darmstadt), F. K. Thielemann (University of Basel), W. Kutschera (University of Vienna), M. J. Garcia Borge (Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid), A. Türler (University of Munich), A. Marinov (University of Jerusalem), G. Drexlin, KIT Karlsruhe. During the event, the special commemorative publication  to mark the 50th Anniversary of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart was presented. More info...
(June 23) New Nucleonica Deployment, internet version 22.214.171.124
Today we deployed version Internet Version 126.96.36.199 of Nucleonica. In this new version, the Natural Radioactivity Applet on the main web page (Educational Resources) now works with a variety of browsers (IE, Firefox, Safari). In addition, a number of improvements have been made to the Cambio File Converter (still in testing phase) to allow the user to upload, display and compare two or more gamma spectrum files. The spectra remain stored during the seesion until the user logs off.
Users have been having problems with access to the Nucleonica wiki (see FAQs on this subject). With this release we hope the situation is improved.
(June 17) New Nucleonica Deployment: Version 2.0.0006.0001
The Mass Activity Calculator now runs under Firefox and other browsers such as: Internet Explorer 6, Internet Explorer 7, Firefox 2, Firefox 3, Safari 4 and Opera 9.6.
(June 5) New Call for an ITU Trainee position with NUCLEONICA
New Call for an ITU Trainee position on "Masking of Nuclear Material with Medical and NORM isotopes"
This call is available on the ITU website at:
DEADLINE is 15th JUNE.
(June 4) New Nucleonica Deployment: Version 2.0.0005.0002
Bug in Mass Activity Calculator fixed.
(June 2) New Nucleonica Scripting module release for general use and testing
Nucleonica's Scripting language module has now been released for general use and testing. This is an object oriented, C/C++ like language which enables users to build new and powerful applications in an easy way. For more information see... http://www.nucleonica.com:81/wiki/index.php/Help:Scripting_language_documentation
(June 2) Major Nucleonica Deployment: Version 2.0.0005.0001
Main new features:
- Dosimetry & Shielding:
A third mode of operation is introduced, to calculate the strength of a source from a measured dose rate at a given distance and behind a shield of known material and thickness.
- Nuclide Datasheets:
The title of the page is changed to Nuclide Datasheets. The first tab is now called Reference Data. The tab Average Cross Sections becomes now Cross Sections.
For natural abundancies, the unit "%" is replaced by "atom %". For nuclides without a half-life, that is with T_HALF=Null, the data sheet was not displayed: now the basic known data are displayed (e.g. Li-3, Uuo-294...). For nuclides with unknown half life (T_HALF=Null), the activity will not be displayed; activity = 0 is now only displayed for stable nuclides.
The specific γ dose rate is calculated in Air with 1 m thickness, and 15 keV threshold, but for γ - and X-rays, rather for γ only up to now.
For parent nuclides the first column is now entitled Type of parent decay
The introductory text for the Graph buttons is now more explicit and visible. The cross section diagrams are nuclide specific; images displayed by clicking one of the buttons Pointwise, Average or (x,xn) cross-sections now take into account the isomeric state of the selected nuclide.
Radiations, 8th table of Isotopes:
The radiaton mode ec, β+ or β- was added for each given emission end point.
- Mass Activity Calculator:
A new source strength unit (µSv/h for dose rate) is introduced. Conversion is made, using a given distance from the source (100 cm by default) and the Equivalent Dose Rate Constant (µSv/m²/MBq/h) in vacuum.
Is now released for all users. In addition to the Specific Gamma Dose Rate calculated at 1 m in air, the Equivalent Dose Rate Constant in vacuum is now available as nuclide property. All Dose rates are computed for γ and X-rays with 15 keV threshold energy.
For EFR calculations, the reactor parameters are initialized to 40 % electrical efficiency, 15 tons initial HM, a neutron flux of 3E15 n/cm²/s and 3 cycles (of 1 y each)
Step 4, Nuclide/Element diagrams: the graphe title displays the reactor and spectrum types even in the case of flux mode calculation
- Nuclide Explorer:
Selection data such as Jπ and BE are shown als for isomers.This data is also shown in the Nuclide box as an application logo. The Chart axes are extended for x up to N=177 and for y up to Z=118. Element 118 - Uuo - is added as a rare gas on the Z-axis. For BE in isomer boxes, only a 4 digit precision is kept and the unit is suppressed. The missing magic line at N=152 is added to the Nuclide Explorer Charts.
- Nucleonica Networking Portal & Nuclear Science Portal:
Top menu - The Home page is now called Networking, the application Portal is now called Nuclear Science
A Privacy statement is added and the Legal notice link is updated
The new item FAQ is added as a link to the wiki's FAQ to the left side navigation menu
The Ask an Expert page is extended by a new item more "Ask an Expert"... as a link to the wiki's Ask_an_Expert
* Registration page:
The message error about the Phone number displays help for its syntax
(May 6) Nucleonica Version 188.8.131.52 on ITU intranet
(April 25) Nucleonica Training course Proceedings now online
1st Advanced Training Course on Illicit Trafficking and Consequence Management with NUCLEONICA, Karlsruhe, April 22-24th, 2009.
(April 8) New Nucleonica Deployment: version 2.0.0003.0000
(April 6) New Nucleonica Deployment: version 2.0.0002.0000
(March 20) "Heisenberg-Würfel" verrät Details über Hitlers Atomprogramm
see the Nucleonica Nuclear Science Gallery http://www.nucleonica.com:81/wiki/index.php/ReadingRoom:Gallery_of_Nuclear_Science
See also article in the BNN (local Karlsruhe newspaper) „Atomdetektive“ gehen auf Spurensuche
(March 19) Call for tenders: Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart
Development of a web-based management tool for data management and printing of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart
The Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) is planning the development of a web-based Karlsruhe nuclide chart (KNC) application to assist the KNC team with the data management for present and future editions of the KNC. In addition, of key importance in this project is the facility to generate high definition files (e.g. pdfs) suitable for printing purposes from the electronic databases. These various printed versions of the Karlsruhe nuclide chart are for world-wide distribution. The applications should be developed within the Nucleonica ( www.nucleonica.com) nuclear science portal (the portal provides a customisable, integrated environment and collaboration platform for the nuclear sciences using the latest Internet 'Web 2.0' technology).
The contract will cover the development of various web applications (web-based Karlsruhe nuclide chart with full editing features, web-based energy level diagrams, web-based KNC database, etc.) and the facility to generate high definition nuclide chart files which can be printed as fold-out charts, wall-charts and 'roll' charts, as well as technical meetings with the ITU KNC team.
(March 11) webKORIGEN module released for general use
Nucleonica's webKORIGEN module has now been released for general use and testing. webKORIGEN module is a user friendly web-based version of the KORIGEN code. The module is used to calculate the fuel depletion during irradiation (burn-up) and decay, and to determine some characteristics of spent nuclear fuel such as time-dependent nuclide masses, radioactivities, decay heat, radiation sources and radiotoxicities. For more information see the Nucleonica wiki page on webKORIGEN:
The Nucleonca team looks forward to your feedback on this new fule cycle application.
(Feb. 20) New Nucleonca Deployment: version 2.0.0001.0000
- webKORIGEN: the GUI (graphical user interface) has been optimized to avoid page reloads. in addition, depending on the mode of operation, graph titles are automatically generated.
- The graph module has also been improved with new options such as clustered bars for gamma emission rates (previous problems with the use of logarithmic axes have been solved).
- Mass Activity Calculator: is fully redesigned in order to suppress the page reloads. "Gram Atoms" were introduced as an additional conversion unit.
- Datasheets: below the decay modes and the daughter nuclides, the Parent nuclides with theire decay modes are displayed. Now the user can navigate the decay chain in both directions.
- Nuclear Data retrieval, Radiation Search, the user can now insert gamma and alpha energies using decimal point noatatzion (previously only integers could be used).
- Scripting module: the user can now submit "command line arguments" to a script through a text box.
- What does the version number mean?
2. Main Version number: as of 2009 this new version unmber is used 0. Revision number 0001. Update number 0000 Normally 0, only used for tests before deployment to the production server
(Feb. 10) Nucleonica presentation during "Gamma Spectrometrie" Course
J. Magill has made a presentation on Nucleonica at the "Gamma Spectrometrie" course at ITU, 10-12th Feb- 2009. The presentation is entitled: NUCLEONICA Overview: A WEB PORTAL FOR THE NUCLEAR SCIENCES.
(Dec. 26) Paul Kuroda Autobiography
Paul Kuroda autobiography now available in Nucleonica... http://www.nucleonica.com:81/wiki/index.php/ReadingRoom:Historical
(Dec. 9) Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart
see also the commemorative publication
(Nov. 20) Nucleonica paper presented at NATO meeting
ADVANCED RESEARCH WORKSHOP: THREAT DETECTION, RESPONSE AND CONSEQUENCE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATED WITH NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL TERRORISM, November 17— 20, 2008, Brussels, Belgium
Paper entitled: Web-based Education & Training for Illicit Trafficking and Consequence Management associated with Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism, J. Magill, A. Berlizov, R. Dreher. Abstract
(Nov. 13) JRC Kick-off meeting on Knowledge Management
A special page has been set up on the Nucleonica wiki giving more details. This page will also be used as a collaborate environment to devleop the final report due end Feb. 2009. For more information see Help:Knowledge_Management_Strategy
(Nov. 3) Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart special event announced
A special one day event to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Karlsruher Nuklidkarte will take place on the 9th Dec. 2008 in the Gartensaal of the Karlsruhe castle. For more information see...
(Oct. 16) Nucleonica version ...100 launched
A new update to nucleonica was made today. Main changes effect "cross-talk" in the easonteCarlo
(Oct. 14) Nucleonica training course in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey
The full proceeedings are now available online.
(Oct. 1) Presentation of Nucleonica at the Fachverband für Strahlenschutz, Karlsruhe
J. Magill has made a presentation on Nucleonica at the 75. Sitzung des AKA, 1-2 Oct. 2008, Karlsruhe, Fachverband für Strahlenschutz e.V. The presentation is entitled: NUCLEONICA Overview: A WEB PORTAL FOR THE NUCLEAR SCIENCES.
Download the 75AKA presentation
(Sept. 25) Gamma Spectrum Generator now online
Download the Gamma Spectrum Generator brochure
(July 24) New Nucleonica Glossary
A New Nucleonica Glossary has been added to the Help pages. This can be accessed under
(July 23) New! Training Course 8-10 October 2008 in Cesme, Turkey
The 10th Nuclear Science training course on Radioactivity, Radionuclides and Radiation with Nucleonica will take place in the Altin Yunus Hotel, Cesme (near Izmir), Turkey, from the 8th to 10th October 2008. It is jointly organized by the European Commission/ITU Germany and Ege University Institute for Nuclear Science, Izmir, Turkey. Further information on the course fees etc. can be obtained from the course secretary Ms Deiss. If you are interested in taking part in this course, please contact the secretary as soon as possible. Ms Deiss will be pleased to answer to your questions. Email: Birgit.DEISS@ext.ec.europa.eu. Phone: +49 7247 951 809. For further information see the announcement.
(June 17) Proceedings of the International Conference on Nuclear Data now available
The proceedings of the International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology held in Nice in 2007, have been printed. In addition, the full proceedings are now freely available on http://nd2007.edpsciences.org.
The Nucleonica paper can be cited as follows:
J. Magill, J. Galy, R. Dreher, D. Hamilton, M. Tufan, C. Normand, A. Schwenk-Ferrero and H.W. Wiese , NUCLEONICA: a nuclear science portal, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, April 22-27, 2007, Nice, France, editors O.Bersillon, F.Gunsing, E.Bauge, R.Jacqmin, and S.Leray, EDP Sciences, 2008, pp 89-92. Doi : 10.1051/ndata:07150
(June 12) Monte Carlo Simulation of Radioactive Decay
First information on a Monte Carlo simulation module for radioactive decay process announced. See new page in the wiki Help. Help:MCRD
(May 27) Nucleonica presentation at ITU
Nucleonica presentations at the Nuclear Forensics and Security workshop "Messübungen für die Allgemeine Gamma Spektroskopie" at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) Karlsruhe:
(April 11) New Nucleonica Application Released: Range & Stopping Power
The Range and Stopping Power module in Nucleonica has now been released for general use. More information on this module can be found in the Nucleonica wiki.
Download a recent publication on this module: Range and Stopping Power Calculations in Nucleonica, M. C. Tufan et al.
Download the powerpoint presentation
(April 2) Nucleonica presentations at NESTet Budapest: Full papers now available
(March 17) Nucleonica/Nuclides.net paper published in JENR
The final version of this article (including full bibliographic details) has been published in the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity and is now available online at:
Please note access to the full text of this article will depend on your personal or institutional entitlements.
What is DOI?
The digital object identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI will never change, which makes it an ideal medium for citing your article.
(March 6) Version 96 of Nucleonica released today
(Feb. 25) Nucleonica presentations announced at NESTet 2008
The preliminary programme for NESTet 2008 in Budapest has been released. There will be a special Nucleonica session. In total, there will be 7 Nucleonica presentations and 1 presentation on the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart.
(Feb. 20) Nucleonica: A Platform for Knowledge Management at ITU?
Presentation, at the PAC5 (Priority Area Coordination) meeting in Petten, Netherlands, of Nucleonica as a potential platform for knowledge management at the Institute for Transuranium Elements.
(Feb. 7) Nucleonica applications released for general use
A number of Nucleonica applications have now been released for general use. These include:
• Multiple interactive nuclide charts
• Decay engine
• Dosimetry & shielding
• Fission yields
• Nuclide mixtures
• My last nuclides, my nuclide mixtures, my alerts
The Nucleonca team looks forward to your feedback on these applications.
(Jan. 8) Highlight article on Nucleonica for the ITU Annual Report
Highlight article on Nucleonica for the ITU Annual Report
(Dec. 19) Cancer risk for children near German power plants
New study on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection is the first study to show reliable results (Press Release from the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection)
(Dec. 10) New Revised Printing of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart
A new revised printing (November 2007, 7th Edition) of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart brochure and fold-out chart is now available from our online shop, see http://www.nucleonica.com/wiki/index.php/Help:Karlsruhe_Nuclide_Chart
(Nov. 14) Open call for JRC Traineeships at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Karlsruhe, Germany
ITU's first open call for JRC-Traineeships has been published on the ITU website. The deadline for applications is 6 December 2007 (midnight). Should you require further information please do not hesitate to contact anika.ROEMMER@ec.europa.eu. In particular we have a position for assistance in the development of an electronic version of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart. This work ranges from creation of Access databases with nuclear data to web programming/databases development. For more information, see:
(Nov. 14) Review of Nucleonica in NVS niews 2007/3
The editorial board of the Dutch Radiation Protection Journal NVS niews is undertaking a review of national and international radionuclide information handbooks and software. Nucleonica has been included in this review.
An English tranlation of this is also available
(October, 29) Proceedings of 9th Nucleonica Training Course (25/26th Oct. 2007)
The proceedings of the 9th NUcleonica training course are now available on the NUcleonica wiki under training course announcements
(September, 13) New networking & community pages now available in Nucleonica
Represent yourself in the international science community and share your views & ideas. Meet colleagues from your areas of interest and build up an international contact list. The groups and their forums provide a very convenient team-working & problem solving environment. Stay in contact with colleagues from previous employment, workshops or conferences.
(August) European Nuclear Society publishes article on Nucleonica
Summary: The European Nuclear Society (ENS) has published an article on Nucleonica in their Summer 2007 (Issue 17) Newsletter. The full text can be read at... http://www.euronuclear.org/e-news/e-news-17/nucleonica.htm
(July) "Nucleonica at a glance" - brochure now available
Summary: NUCLEONICA is a new nuclear science web portal from the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre. The portal provides a customisable, integrated environment and collaboration platform for the nuclear sciences using the latest internet “Web 2.0” technology. NUCLEONICA is aimed at professionals,academics and students working in the fields of nuclear power, health physics and radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, and astrophysics. In addition, the portal will find application in the life sciences (e.g. biology, medicine, agriculture) and the earth sciences (geology, meteorology, environmental science). It is also used as a knowledge management tool to preserve nuclear knowledge built up over many decades by creating modern web-based versions of so-called legacy computer codes. NUCLEONICA provides “software as a service” on the web rather than through installed software, adding a greater level of stability and security and avoiding version compatibility and update problem. In addition, all NUCLEONICA’s web applications are browser and operating system independent and can therefore be accessed by most web browsers. The NUCLEONICA portal can also be accessed by a variety of mobile devices. http://www.nucleonica.com:81/wiki/index.php/Help:Nucleonica_at_a_glance
(June) New Translations of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart
Summary: New translations of the "Explanation of the Chart of the Nuclides" are now avalaible in Italian, Japanese, Korean and Romanian. They can be found on the Nucleonica web site under... http://www.nucleonica.com/explanation.aspx
(April) Nucleonica presentation at "Nuclear Data 2007" conference
Summary: NUCLEONICA is a new nuclear science web portal from the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre. The portal provides a customisable, integrated environment and collaboration platform for the nuclear sciences using the latest internet “Web 2.0” dynamic technology. NUCLEONICA is aimed at professionals, academics and students working with radionuclides in fields as diverse as the life sciences (e.g., biology, medicine, agriculture), the earth sciences (geology, meteorology, environmental science) and the more traditional disciplines such as nuclear power, health physics and radiation protection, nuclear and radio-chemistry, and astrophysics. It is also used as a knowledge management tool to preserve nuclear knowledge built up over many decades by creating modern web-based versions of so-called legacy computer codes.
(March) atw press release
Summary: Die siebte, aktualisierte Auflage der „Karlsruher Nuklidkarte“ ist erschienen. Die vollständig überarbeitete Ausgabe zeigt die bekannten Atomkerne aller Elemente und deren radioaktive Daten. Die Nuklidkarte wurde seit 1958 vom Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe und seinen Vorläuferinstitutionen herausgegeben. Die Gemeinsame Forschungsstelle der Europäischen Kommission, das Institut für Transurane in Karlsruhe, setzt diese Tradition mit der vorliegenden und weiteren Ausgaben der Nuklidkarte zusammen mit dem Forschungszentrum fort. The full text can be seen at... http://www.nucleonica.com/docs/atw-2007-02-publications.pdf
(February) FZK Press Release on the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart, 7th Edition
Summary: Eine Dokumentation wissenschaftlicher Leistungen in der Kernforschung. Neuausgabe der „Karlsruher Nuklidkarte“ erschienen. Soeben ist die siebte Auflage der „Karlsruher Nuklidkarte“ erschienen. Die Nuklidkarte ist eine Art erweitertes Periodensystem der Elemente. Die vollständig überarbeitete Ausgabe zeigt die bekannten Atomkerne aller Elemente und deren radioaktive Daten. Die Nuklidkarte wurde seit 1958 vom Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe und seinen Vorläuferinstitutionen herausgegeben. Die Gemeinsame Forschungsstelle der Europäischen Kommission, das Institut für Transurane in Karlsruhe, wird diese Tradition nun mit der vorliegenden und weiteren Ausgaben der Nuklidkarte zusammen mit dem Forschungszentrum fortsetzen. Die Nuklidkarte wird in der ganzen Welt für Forschung und Lehre verwendet und hängt in vielen Chemie-Hörsälen und Labors weltweit. http://www.nucleonica.com/docs/FZK_press_Nuklidekarte.pdf
(January) Polonium-210 Updated
The element polonium was first discovered by Mme. Curie in 1898 while seeking the cause of radioactivity of pitchblende (uranium ore). The element is named after Poland, Mme Curie’s native country. There are now 35 known radioactive isotopes of the element polonium – there are no stable isotopes. Polonium-210 (Po-210) is a naturally occurring radioactive material. Although it decays to stable lead-206, it is constantly being produced in nature from the decay of uranium-238 – the main component of uranium in the earth. Due to this “equilibrium”, the concentration of Po-210 in nature is approximately 75 µg of Po-210 for every ton of uranium-238. In terms of disintegrations per second or activity, this corresponds to 1.2E+10 disintegrations per second or 1.2E+10 Bq (1 Becquerel, Bq = 1 disintegration per second).
(December) JRC Press Release on the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart, 7th Edition
The JRC publishes a new edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). The full press release can be seen on the Nucleonica website under...
(December) Facts on Polonium-210
The element polonium was first discovered by Mme. Curie in 1898 while seeking the cause of radioactivity of pitchblende (uranium ore). The element is named after Poland, Mme Curie’s native country. There are now 35 known radioactive isotopes of the element polonium – there are no stable isotopes. Polonium-210 (Po-210) is a naturally occurring radioactive material. Although it decays to stable lead-206, it is constantly being produced in nature from the decay of uranium-238 – the main component of uranium in the earth. Due to this “equilibrium”, the concentration of Po-210 in nature is approximately 75 µg of Po-210 for every ton of uranium-238. In terms of disintegrations per second or activity, this corresponds to 1.2E+10 disintegrations per second or 1.2E+10 Bq (1 Becquerel, Bq = 1 disintegration per second). For more details see Nucleonica web site under.. http://www.nucleonica.com/polonium210.aspx
(November) New Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart from the Institute of Transuranium Elements
The 7th edition of the “Karlsruher Nuklidkarte” contains new and updated radioactive decay data on more than 600 nuclides not found in the previous (1998) edition. In total, nuclear data on 2962 experimentally observed nuclides and 692 isomers is presented.