Level: Introductory, Intermediate Level: Introductory, Intermediate
The basic nuclear data in Nucleonica is contained within the DataSheets shown. The active tab Reference Data shows the basic reference data for nuclide Co-60. Additional tabs provide access to Options, Radiations, Description, Derived Data, and Cross Section data.
The Reference Data includes:
- effective dose coefficient for inhalation and ingestion e(50),
- average decay energies for alpha, electron and photon,
- information on possible parents and their decay modes
For further information on references see Nucleonica Database
Did You Know
- Nucleonica contains data from international datafiles such as JEFF3.1, ENDF/B-VII.1, 8th Table of Isotopes, ICRP 68 & 72, etc.
- There are currently more than 3100 nuclide ground states and over 700 isomers in the Nucleonica database.
- The database contains 85899 gamma and X-rays (ENDF/B-VII.1) from approximately 1300 nuclides.
In the radioactive decay process, a variety of particles and/or photons can be emitted including alpha particles, electrons, gamma and X-ray photons. In the Radiations tab, a list of the energies and emission probabilities of the emitted particles/photons is given in both tabular and graphical forms. The underlying data is from the JEFF3.1 datafile or the 8th Table of Isotopes.
The image shows the particle and photon energies and emission probabilities for Am-241. By default, the entries in the table are by decreasing emission probability for all types of particle / photon. Through the use of the check buttons, the user can easily filter out a single type of radiation e.g. gamma or alpha, etc.
Further information can be obtained by activation the Show details button. In additon to uncertainties in the energies and emission probabilities, one can see the conversion coefficients for each gamma transition energy. Excited states can de-excite either through gamma emission or alternatively through the emission of so-called conversion electrons. This conversion coefficient is essentially the ratio of electrons to gamma photons emitted. The de-excitation can lead to the emission of K, L, M, etc. atomic electrons given by the coefficients , , , etc. The sum of all these coefficients is denoted by .
For more information see internal conversion.
The Description tab gives literature references for the basic reference data. This data originates from the JEFF3.1 nuclear datafile with some corrections. This image shown contains the information on Co-60 from the JEFF-3.1 Radioactive Decay Data File which was compiled at the NEA Data Bank - Feb. 2005. This datafile has been convertted into a relational database for use in Nucleonica. References to the original scientific papers are given where available.
The Derived Data tab shows data derived from the basic data and includes:
- Heat Generation: the isotopic power for α, α+β, α+β+γ (heat generation);
- Gamma Emission: Air kerma, exposure and ambient dose rate constants; for more information see Dose rate constants
- Radiotoxicity: Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for ingestion and inhalation (radiotoxicities), derived air and water concentrations;
- Transport & Packaging: the A1 and A2 activity and activity exemption limits for packaging and transportation.
The Cross Sections tab gives the averaged cross section data based on JEF Report 14 (Table of Simple Integral Neutron Cross Section Data from JEF-2-2, ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.2, BROND-2, and CENDL-2).
The data include the averaged cross sections corresponding to the following energies:
- 2200 m/s,
- Maxwell average,
- resonance integral,
- 14 MeV, and
- fission spectrum average
for a range of important nuclear reactions including:
- (n,2n), (n,3n)
and from a variety of databases. Results for Cl-35 are shown below. Point-wise (shown on the right), average (multigroup), and (x,xn) cross sections as a function of energy are shown in graphical form (where available).
JEF Report 14 Table of Simple Integral Neutron Cross Section Data from JEF-2-2, ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.2, BROND-2, and CENDL-2.