Obituary Gerda Pfennig, 8.12.1930 – 16.2.2017

March 1st, 2017
by Joseph Magill

Gerda Pfennig, “Mother” of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart, died on 16 February 2017 aged 86.
GerdaPfennigBorn on 8 Dec. 1930, Gerda Pfennig received her training in chemistry at the Fachschule Fresenius, Wiesbaden. In 1958, she joined the Institut für Radiochemie (Institute of Radiochemistry) of the Kernreaktor Bau- und Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Nuclear Reactor Building and Operating Company) in Karlsruhe. The first edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart, printed in 1958 in the form of a wall chart, was created by Walter Seelmann-Eggebert and his assistant Gerda Pfennig. Since this first edition, Frau Pfennig has co-authored all editions of the Chart until the 9th Edition in 2015. During the period 2006-2012 Frau Pfennig was working at the European Commission’s Institute for Transuranium Elements on the 7th (2006) and 8th (2012) editions of the Chart. From 2012-2015 she was actively involved with Nucleonica GmbH on the 9th edition of the Chart. Her life was marked with a passion for music, tennis and the nuclide chart.
In the field of nuclear data Frau Pfennig was both conscientious and dedicated and an inspiration to her colleagues. We will always keep her in our memories.

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Coincidence Summing Corrections++

February 24th, 2017
by Joseph Magill

True Coincidence Summation occurs when two gamma-rays are emitted during the same decay event of the nucleus, so that they appear to be emitted instantaneously. This seemingly instantaneous emission of separate gamma-rays is known as coincidence. In this situation the detector will see both of the gamma-ray energies as one larger energy deposited in the detector. A tell-tale sign of coincidence is a summation peak that appears at the combined energy of the two characteristic gamma-rays of the source.
CSC_Co60CSC2The Coincidence Summing Corrections++ application offers the possibility of calculating the coincidence summing correction factors for a large number of radionuclides and for virtually any detector and sample size, density and composition. The results are given gamma-line by gamma-line, with the unaffected lines having a correction factor of 1.

Additional information
Coincidence Summing Corrections++ wiki page

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Reduced Decay Schemes

February 23rd, 2017
by Joseph Magill

The Reduced Decay Schemes is a new application for displaying the reduced decay schemes of selected nuclides.
The nuclear data contained in the nuclide boxes (in the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart for example) is concise due to the very limited space available. In order to obtain maximum benefit from the nuclide chart, it is important to know how to interpret the box contents correctly. In the new application, the contents of the nuclide boxes are explained in detail by making reference to the nuclide reduced decay scheme in order to relate the box contents with information on energies of emitted particles with the energy levels in the nucleus in the decay scheme diagram. Additional data has been taken from the Nuclear Data Sheets and Nucleonica’s Datasheets.
RDS_K42 To improve understanding, some transitions not mentioned in the box are added and indicated as dotted lines. Corresponding data is also indicated in grey. Radiations with a low emission probability indicated by dots or brackets in the nuclide box are also drawn with dotted lines.
Additionally a gamma spectrum of the particular nuclide is shown (generated by Nucleonica’s Gamma Spectrum Generator application).

More Information…
Reduced Decay Schemes wiki page
Gamma Spectrum Generator

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Buildup and Attenuation

January 25th, 2017
by Joseph Magill

The Dosimetry & Shielding H*(10) has been further extended to include a new tab giving detailed information on the mass coefficients and buildup factors for a range of materials. The data is available in both graphical and tabular form.BUF_concrete MC_concrete
The list of shield entries, which has been extended to include 14 new materials, now consists of: Air, Aluminium, Argon, Beryllium, Boron, Calcium, Carbon, Concrete, Copper, Gadolinium, Iron, Lanthanum, Lead, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Silicon, Sodium, sulfur, Tin, Tungsten, Uranium, Water.

More information…
Dosimetry & Shielding H*(10) wiki page
Details on Attenuation and Buildup

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Nucleonica Newsletter 2017

January 3rd, 2017
by Joseph Magill

Dear Nucleonica Users,
In 2016, we continued with our mission to build the most innovative technical resource for knowledge creation & competence preservation for the worldwide nuclear science community. Our vision is to provide scientists, engineers and technical personnel in the field the best software solutions and, in addition, create a sustainable home for the nuclear science community on the web.
Nucleonica Online Applications:
During the past year, we have again extensively upgraded and re-written a wide range of applications. In particular the following new applications have been created: Photon Dose Rate Constants, Radiological Converter, and Dosimetry & Shielding, H*(10). Pages 2-4 describe these new developments in more detail.
nn_2017Nucleonica Dedicated Training Courses:
In the area of training, 2016 has been a busy year for the Nucleonica team. In May there was a 2-day training course in CERN. This was followed by 3 training courses at the WAK / KIT in Karlsruhe and a course at JEN mbH on the Fz-Juelich site. In November, a training course was held at the BfS premises in Berlin with emphasis on nuclear security and nuclear material identification. For more information see pages 11-13.
If you would like to book a dedicated training course for your organisation 2017, please make sure to register your interest as soon as possible. To enquire about Nucleonica training courses, please send an email to info@nucleonica.com.
Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart:
We continue to provide updates to the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart through a collaboration with the EC’s DG Joint Research Centre. The new element names recently accepted by IUPAC have been included in the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart Online. To order copies of the most recent version of the Chart, please place your order here. More information can be found on page 10.
We Welcome your Feedback:
Finally, thanks to all our partners and users for the many suggestions and proposals which we received during 2016. Many of these have been discussed in our Forum and where possible the relevant application has been updated. A particular example here was the request to update the Dosimetry & Shielding and related applications to include the internationally standarised ambient dose equivalent H*(10).

On the following pages, this Newsletter informs you in more detail about the above developments. Hopefully you find this of interest.
Finally, thanks for your continued support and best wishes for 2017.
Sincerely yours,
Joseph Magill
Managing Director

More information…
Nucleonica Newsletter 2017
Previous Newsletters
Nucleonica Newsletter 2016
Nucleonica Newsletter 2015
Nucleonica Newsletter 2014
Nucleonica Newsletter 2013
Nucleonica Newsletter 2012

Posted in Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart, Nucleonica | Comments

Dosimetry & Shielding H*(10)

December 19th, 2016
by Joseph Magill

The new Dosimetry & Shielding H*(10) is a further development of Nucleonica’s Dosimetry & Shielding++ with the following new features:
* The list of calculated quantities now covers a) air kerma rates Kair; b) exposure rates X; and c) ambient dose equivalent rates H*(10) for approximately 1500 gamma and x-ray emitting radionuclides (depending on the database used).
* The threshold energy used in the calculations for dose quantities can be set by the user to investigate the effect of low energy photons on the dose calculations.
* Account is taken of short-lived daughter nuclides when a parent nuclide is selected indicated with a * e.g. Cs137*.
* The underlying dataset used in the calculations can be selected from a list of international nuclear datafiles (JEFF3.1, ENDF/B-VII.1, 8th TORI)
dsh10_1The new Dosimetry & Shielding H*(10) application with the new dose quantities. A key feature is the inclusion of short-lived daughters in the calculations as indicated by an asterisk * before the physical quantities and following the nuclide name e.g. Cs137*.

More information…
Dosimetry & Shielding H*(10) wiki page

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Apache Subversion SVN for Nucleonica Source Control Management

December 14th, 2016
by Joseph Magill

Due to the ever increasing scale and range of the applications, Nucleonica software developers are now using Subversion SVN to maintain current and historical versions of files such as source code, web pages, and documentation. Apache Subversion (often abbreviated SVN, after its command name svn) is a software versioning and revision control system distributed as free software under the Apache License (Wikipedia).
The SVN server (VisualSVN standard version) has now been installed and is running on a Nucleonica server. This can be addressed with any SVN clients such as the Tortoise SVN client. (https://tortoisesvn.net/index.en.html)
With the Tortoise client installed locally on the development computers, the Nucleonica programmers can address the repository with the appropriate URL to have the latest source code and keep the repository updated.
svgMore information
Apache Subversion (wikipedia)

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Derived Data with new dose quantities

November 15th, 2016
by Joseph Magill

The Derived Data application in the Nucleonica Nuclide Datasheets++ has been updated to include the new dose quantities. The Derived Data now include:
* The list of derived data now includes covers a) air kerma rates Kair; b) exposure rates X; and c) ambient dose equivalent rates H*(10) for approximately 1500 gamma and x-ray emitting radionuclides (depending on the database used).
* The threshold energy used in the calculations for dose quantities can be set (in the Options) by the user to investigate the effect of low energy photons on the dose calculations.
* The results are for single nuclides only. In this application, no account is taken of short-lived daughters. To obtain the results including short-lived daughters the user should use the Photon Dose Rate Constants application.
* The underlying dataset used in the calculations can be selected from a list of international nuclear datafiles (JEFF3.1, ENDF/B-VII.1, 8th TORI)
ddDerived Data showing the new dose quantities.

More information…
Derived Data wiki page

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Radiological Converter

November 10th, 2016
by Joseph Magill

The Radiological Converter is a further development of Nucleonica’s Mass Activitiy Converter++ with the following new features:
* The list of conversion quantities now covers a) air kerma rates Kair; b) exposure rates X; and c) ambient dose equivalent rates H*(10) for approximately 1500 gamma and x-ray emitting radionuclides (depending on the database used).
* The threshold energy used in the calculations for dose quantities can be set by the user to investigate the effect of low energy photons on the dose calculations.
* Account is taken of short-lived daughter nuclides when a parent nuclide is selected indicated with a * e.g. Cs137*.
* The underlying dataset used in the calculations can be selected from a list of international nuclear datafiles (JEFF3.1, ENDF/B-VII.1, 8th TORI)
cs137starRadiological Converter showing the new dose quantities. A key feature is the inclusion of short-lived daughters in the calculations as indicated by an asterisk * before the physical quantities and following the nuclide name e.g. Cs137*.

More information…
Radiological Converter wiki page

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Photon Dose Rate Constants++

November 7th, 2016
by Joseph Magill

The new Photon Dose Rate Constants++ application in Nucleonica allows the user to calculate the internationally accepted Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate Constants, Air Kerma Rate Constants, and Exposure Rate Constants for approximately 1500 gamma and x-ray emitting radionuclides. These quantities are useful for estimating the dose rates from point sources where attenuation and scattering in the source and in air are negligible. From the dose rate constants, the ambient dose rates H*(10), air kerma rates Kair, and exposure rates X can then be obtained.
In contrast to previously defined dose rates, the ambient dose rate H*(10) accounts for absorption and scattering in the human body by simulating the body through a phantom (the ICRU sphere of 30 cm diameter made of tissue equivalent material).drcppNew Photon Dose Rate Constants application

For the calculation of the dose rate constants, some nuclides are considered to be in equilibrium with daughter products. This is the case when a single radioactive decay chain in which radionuclides are present in their naturally occurring proportions, and in which no daughter nuclide has a half-life either longer than 10 days or longer than that of the parent nuclide, shall be considered as a single radionuclide.
Additional features of the application are that 1. the underlying dataset used in the calculations can be selected from a list of international nuclear datafiles (JEFF3.1, ENDF/B-VII.1, etc.) and viewed in the results grid; and 2. the threshold energy used in the calculations can be set by the user to investigate the effect of this on the calculation results.

More information…
Photon Dose Rate Constants++ wiki page

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